Human Oral Microbiome Taxon Description
Abiotrophia defectiva
Human Oral Taxon ID (HOT):389Synonym:
Streptococcus defectivus
Named - Cultured
Type Strain:
ATCC 49176
More info at StrainInfo
NCBI Taxonomy ID:
16S rRNA Sequence:
AY207063  [Entrez Link]
PubMed Search:74  [PubMed Link]
16S rRNA Alignment: View Alignment         Download Alignment         NoteNucleotide Search:308  [Entrez Nucleotide Link]
Phylogeny: View 16S rRNA tree         View all Tree filesProtein Search:3903  [Entrez Protein Link]
Prevalence by Molecular Cloning:
Clones seen = 236 / 34879 = 0.677%
Rank Abundance = 28
Genome Sequence
1 View Genome
Hierarchy Structure:    Hide or show the hierarchy structure
General Information:
Abiotrophia defectiva was originally named Streptococcus defectivus [6].  Fastidious streptococci that grew as satellite colonies around other microorganisms or in complex media enriched with cysteine were originally described as nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) by Frenkel and Hirsch [7].  Kawamura et al. recognized that S. defectivus and other NVS were not members of the genus Streptococcus  and created the genus Abiotrophia [1] 

Requires 10 mg/l pyrixoxal hydrochloride or 100 mg/l L-cysteine for growth [1]
Phenotypic Characteristics:
Gram-positive cocci.  Nonmotile, nonsporulating, catalase negative, and oxidase negative.  Facultatively anaerobic with complex growth requirements.  Grows as satellite colonies adjacent to Staphylococcus epidermidis [1]. 
Prevalence and Source:
Abiotrophia defectiva is a common member of the human oral cavity, pharynx, intestine and urogenital tracts.  In a study examining the normal microflora of the oral cavity it was recovered from buccal, hard palate, tooth surface and subgingival sites [3].  
Disease Associations:

In a study of microbial risk indicators of early childhood caries, Abiotrophia defectiva was significantly more abundant in caries free vs caries active subjects [4].  The organism has also been associated with bacterial endocarditis [2,5]

PubMed database:
[1] Kawamura Y, Hou XG, Sultana F, Liu S, Yamamoto H, Ezaki T. Transfer of Streptococcus adjacens and Streptococcus defectivus to Abiotrophia gen. nov. as Abiotrophia adiacens comb. nov. and Abiotrophia defectiva comb. nov., respectively. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1995 Oct;45(4):798-803  [PubMed]
[2] Christensen JJ, Facklam RR. Granulicatella and Abiotrophia species from human clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Oct;39(10):3520-3  [PubMed]
[3] Aas JA, Paster BJ, Stokes LN, Olsen I, Dewhirst FE. Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Nov;43(11):5721-32  [PubMed]
[4] Corby PM, Lyons-Weiler J, Bretz WA, Hart TC, Aas JA, Boumenna T, Goss J, Corby AL, Junior HM, Weyant RJ, Paster BJ. Microbial risk indicators of early childhood caries. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Nov;43(11):5753-9  [PubMed]
[5] Hashimoto T, Jodo S, Furusaki A, Kon Y, Amasaki Y, Atsumi T, Komatsu H, Shimokawa J, Yonezawa K, Koike T. A woman with infectious endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva. Intern Med. 2004 Oct;43(10):1000-4  [PubMed]
Non-PubMed database:
[6] Bouvet A, Grimont F, Grimont PAD Streptococcus defectivus sp. nov. and Streptococcus adjacens sp. nov., nutritionally variant streptococci from human clinical specimens. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1989 Jul; 39(3):290-294  
[7] Frenkel A, Hirsch W Spontaneous development of L. forms of streptococci requiring secretions of other bacteria or sulphydryl compounds for normal growth Nature. 1961 191:728-730  
Curator:  Floyd Dewhirst
Creation Info:   Latest Modification:  wenhan,  2008-05-15 17:40:14

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