Human Oral Microbiome Taxon Description
Streptococcus mutans
Human Oral Taxon ID (HOT):686Synonym:
Status:
Named - Cultured
Type Strain:
ATCC 25175, NCTC10449
More info at StrainInfo
Classification:
Domain:Bacteria
Phylum:Firmicutes
Class:Bacilli
Order:Lactobacillales
Family:Streptococcaceae
Genus:Streptococcus
Species:mutans
NCBI Taxonomy ID:
16S rRNA Sequence:
AJ243965  [Entrez Link]
PubMed Search:8717  [PubMed Link]
16S rRNA Alignment: View Alignment         Download Alignment         NoteNucleotide Search:40092  [Entrez Nucleotide Link]
Phylogeny: View 16S rRNA tree         View all Tree filesProtein Search:204358  [Entrez Protein Link]
Prevalence by Molecular Cloning:
Clones seen = 1500 / 34879 = 4.30%
Rank Abundance = 3
Genome Sequence
19 View Genomes
 
Hierarchy Structure:    Hide or show the hierarchy structure
General Information:
Belongs to a phenotypic group called the mutans streptococci which include S. sobrinus, S. ferus, S. cricetus, S. rattus and serotype "h" [4].  Phylogenetically distinct from other species of Streptococcus. 

Cultivability:
Colonies are whitish about 0.5 to 1 mm that stick to the agar.  When media is supplemented with sucrose, puddles of liquid (e.g., soluble extracellular polysaccharide) surround the colonies. 
Phenotypic Characteristics:
Facultatively anaerobic, Gram positive cocci (0.5 to 0.75 um in diameter), which occurs in pairs, or short chains [4] 

Produces extracellular polysaccharides from sucrose by glucosyltransferase (e.g., glucans) and fructoosyltransferases (e.g. fructans).  These polysaccharides promotes binding to cell surfaces.

Glucose is fermented to L-lactic acid with no gas.  Final pH in glucose broth cultures is 4.0 to 4.3.  Growth is not inhibited by lower pH. 

Strains of S. mutans can be distinguished serologically.  Peptidoglycan contains glutamic acid, alanine, lysine, glucosamine adn muranmic acid [4]
Prevalence and Source:
Commonly detected o­n human teeth in supragingival plaque, and usually associated with caries.  Has been isolated from human feces.
Disease Associations:
Strong association with human dental caries, considered the primary cause of caries, although caries can occur in the absence of S. mutans.    Also associated with endodontic lesions, odontogenic infections, infectious endocarditis and cardiovascular disease [2]

Is carogenic in experimental animals (rats, hamsters, gerbils, mice and monkey.

Vaccines which target S. mutans are being developed to prevent caries formation [1].
References:
PubMed database:
[1] Taubman MA, Nash DA. The scientific and public-health imperative for a vaccine against dental caries. Nat Rev Immunol.2006 Jul;6(7):555-63  [PubMed]
[2] Nakano K, Inaba H, Nomura R, Nemoto H, Takeda M, Yoshioka H, Matsue H, Takahashi T, Taniguchi K, Amano A, Ooshima T. Detection of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in extirpated heart valve and atheromatous plaque specimens. J Clin Microbiol.2006 Sep;44(9):3313-7  [PubMed]
[3] van Ruyven FO, Lingström P, van Houte J, Kent R. Relationship among mutans streptococci, "low-pH" bacteria, and lodophilic polysaccharide-producing bacteria in dental plaque and early enamel caries in humans. J Dent Res.2000 Feb;79(2):778-84  [PubMed]
Non-PubMed database:
[4] Hardie JM. Genus Streptococcus. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 1986; Vol. 2, pp. 1043-1063.  
   
Curator:  
Creation Info:   Latest Modification:  wenhan,  2008-01-17 12:42:02

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