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Human Oral Microbiome Taxon Description
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Human Oral Taxon ID (HOT):
Named - Cultured
ATCC 25175, NCTC10449
More info at
NCBI Taxonomy ID:
[NCBI Taxonomy Link]
16S rRNA Sequence:
16S rRNA Alignment:
[Entrez Nucleotide Link]
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[Entrez Protein Link]
Prevalence by Molecular Cloning:
Clones seen = 1500 / 34879 = 4.30%
Rank Abundance = 3
Belongs to a phenotypic group called the mutans streptococci which include S. sobrinus, S. ferus, S. cricetus, S. rattus and serotype "h" . Phylogenetically distinct from other species of Streptococcus.
Colonies are whitish about 0.5 to 1 mm that stick to the agar. When media is supplemented with sucrose, puddles of liquid (e.g., soluble extracellular polysaccharide) surround the colonies.
Facultatively anaerobic, Gram positive cocci (0.5 to 0.75 um in diameter), which occurs in pairs, or short chains 
Produces extracellular polysaccharides from sucrose by glucosyltransferase (e.g., glucans) and fructoosyltransferases (e.g. fructans). These polysaccharides promotes binding to cell
Glucose is fermented to L-lactic acid with no gas. Final pH in glucose broth cultures is 4.0 to 4.3. Growth is not inhibited by lower pH.
Strains of S. mutans can be distinguished serologically. Peptidoglycan contains glutamic acid, alanine, lysine, glucosamine adn muranmic acid 
Prevalence and Source:
Commonly detected on human teeth in supragingival plaque, and usually associated with caries. Has been isolated from human feces.
Strong association with human dental caries, considered the primary cause of caries, although caries can occur in the absence of S. mutans. Also associated with endodontic lesions, odontogenic infections, infectious endocarditis and cardiovascular disease 
Is carogenic in experimental animals (rats, hamsters, gerbils, mice and monkey.
Vaccines which target S. mutans are being developed to prevent caries formation .
Taubman MA, Nash DA. The scientific and public-health imperative for a vaccine against dental caries. Nat Rev Immunol.2006 Jul;6(7):555-63
Nakano K, Inaba H, Nomura R, Nemoto H, Takeda M, Yoshioka H, Matsue H, Takahashi T, Taniguchi K, Amano A, Ooshima T. Detection of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in extirpated heart valve and atheromatous plaque specimens. J Clin Microbiol.2006 Sep;44(9):3313-7
van Ruyven FO, Lingström P, van Houte J, Kent R. Relationship among mutans streptococci, "low-pH" bacteria, and lodophilic polysaccharide-producing bacteria in dental plaque and early enamel caries in humans. J Dent Res.2000 Feb;79(2):778-84
Hardie JM. Genus Streptococcus. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 1986; Vol. 2, pp. 1043-1063.
, 2008-01-17 12:42:02
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