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16S rRNA RefSeq: V15.23    Genomic RefSeq: V10.1
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Streptococcus sanguinis (HMT-758)
Taxon Description:
Viridans type of streptococci has had taxonomic revisions [15]. Previously designated as strains of Streptococcus sanguis subsp. carlssonii. Will also see in the literature as Streptococcus sanguinis a proposed name change.

Disease Associations:
Generally associated with healthy oral microflora but has been associated with intact enamel in children with no caries [2]. However it has been suggested that it may play a role in caries production [3].Has also been associated with infective endocarditis and sinusitis. S. sanguis and other oral species have been linked to Behcet's disease a systemic disorder of recurrent acute inflammation including oral aphthous ulcers uveitis skin lesions and genital ulcers [4]

Prevalence and Source:
Commonly found in the human oral cavity and throat. Has been isolated from blood and heart valves of patients with bacterial endocarditis. May be found occasionally in human feces
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Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Genus: Streptococcus
Species:Streptococcus sanguinis
Status: Named - Cultured
Type/Reference Strain: ATCC 10556, NCTC7863
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Former Names or Synonyms:
Phylum: Firmicutes
Streptococcus sanguinis
Streptococcus sanguis ss. carlssonii
16S rRNA Reference Sequences:    view in
RefSeq tree
RefSeq ID: 758_3928

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Genotypic Description:
Phenotypic Characteristics: Facultatively anaerobic Gram positive cocci approximately 1 um in diameter that grow in short chains in broth cultures. Carbohydrates are femented primarily to lactic acid and no gas. Catalase negative. Cell wall contains glycerol teichoic acid and rhamnose. Peptidoglycan type is Lys-Ala1-3 [56]S. sanguis is similar to S. gordonii but can be differentiated based on the following; DNA homology higher G+C content of the DNA (46 vs 42 mol%) doesn't ferment amygdalin lacks alkaline phosphatase and B-glucosaminidase activities has IgA1 protease activity and by multilocus enzyme analysis [56].4 biovars of S. sanguis differ biochemically and serologically but all biovars possess the group H antigen [5]
Cultivability: Alpha-hemolytic colonies (0.7- 1.2 mm diameter) on blood agar and extensive greening on chocolate agar [56].
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Microbial Ecology
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NCBI Taxon ID: 1305 [Link to NCBI]
PubMed Searches:
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[NCBI (Entrez) Nucleotide Link]
[NCBI (Entrez) Protein Link]
Number of
Genome Sequences:
90 See List
Phylogenetic Trees:
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[1] Coykendall AL, Specht PA. DNA base sequence homologies among strains of Streptococcus sanguis. J Gen Microbiol. 1975 Nov;91(1):92-8
[2] Becker MR, Paster BJ, Leys EJ, Moeschberger ML, Kenyon SG, Galvin JL, Boches SK, Dewhirst FE, Griffen AL. Molecular analysis of bacterial species associated with childhood caries. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Mar;40(3):1001-9
[3] Sansone C, Van Houte J, Joshipura K, Kent R, Margolis HC. The association of mutans streptococci and non-mutans streptococci capable of acidogenesis at a low pH with dental caries on enamel and root surfaces. J Dent Res. 1993 Feb;72(2):508-16
[4] Suzuki Kurokawa M, Suzuki N. Behcets disease. Clin Exp Med. 2004 Sep;4(1):10-20
[5] Kilian M, Mikkelsen L, Henrichsen J. Taxonomic study of viridans Streptococci: Description of Streptococcus gordonii sp. nov. and emended descriptions of S. sanguis (White and Niven 1946), S. oralis .... Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1989 Oct;39(4):471-84.
[6] Hardie RM. Genus Streptococcus. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 1986; Vol. 2, pp. 1043-1063.